Chapter 5


André Gaudreault and Philippe Marion, “A Medium is always Born Twice,” trans. Timothy Barnard, Early Popular Visual Culture 3, no. 1 (2005): 3–15. See also by the same authors “Cinéma et généalogie des médias,” Médiamorphoses 16 (April 2006): 24–30.


Jacques Aumont, Que reste-t-il du cinéma? (2012), 39–40. Emphasis in the original.


Here we develop certain ideas proposed by André Gaudreault in Film and Attraction: From Kinematography to Cinema, trans. Timothy Barnard (2011 [2008]).


A concept initially developed by André Gaudreault in his volume From Plato to Lumière: Narration and Monstration in Literature and Cinema, trans. Timothy Barnard ( 2009 [1988]) and that also involves an “extrinsic narrativity” we will address below.


See André Gaudreault and Philippe Marion, “Pour une nouvelle approche de la périodisation en histoire du cinéma,” Cinémas 17, nos. 2–3 (Spring 2007): 215–32.


“In the documentary the basic material has been created by God, whereas in the fiction film the director is the god.” François Truffaut, Hitchcock (1967), 70.

Find out more

The authors have previously employed this formula of Hitchcock’s in “Dieu est l’auteur des documentaires . . .,” Cinémas 4, no. 2 (1994): 11-26. The article is accessible at the following address:

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